Surkotada: A Harappan Jewel in the Desert

Surkotada: An important Harappan site, contributing valuable insights into the Indus Valley Civilization


Share to

Table of Contents

Introduction to Surkotada

Indus Valley Civilization: An ancient civilization that flourished around 2500-1900 BCE in the northwestern regions of South Asia. Known for its advanced urban planning, architecture, and social organization.

Surkotada: An important Harappan site, contributing valuable insights into the Indus Valley Civilization.

Location: Situated in the Kutch district, Gujarat, India.


  • Offers a deeper understanding of Harappan urban life and culture.
  • Provides evidence of fortified structures, residential areas, and unique artifacts.
  • Enhances knowledge about the daily life, trade, and agricultural practices of the Harappans.

Historical Background and Discovery

Discovery and Excavation:
  • Discovered in 1964 by J.P. Joshi, an archaeologist from the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI).
  • Importance of systematic excavations in uncovering Surkotada’s secrets.

Dholavira | IASbaba

Timeline and Context:
  • Existed between 2300 BCE and 1700 BCE.
  • Part of the larger Indus Valley Civilization, contemporaneous with other major sites like Harappa, Mohenjo-Daro, and Lothal.

Geographic and Environmental Setting

Location and Topography:
  • Situated in the semi-arid region of Kutch.
  • Strategic location near seasonal riverbeds.
  • Proximity to trade routes, enhancing trade and commerce opportunities.
Climate and Resources:
  • Adaptation to the arid climate through specialized living and agricultural practices.
  • Utilization of local resources:
    • Copper for tools and ornaments.
    • Semi-precious stones for jewelry and trade.
    • Clay for pottery and construction.

Urban Planning and Architecture

Town Layout:

Surkotada | Location, Timings & All Information

  • Fortified settlement: Town is protected by defensive structures.
  • Distinct citadel and lower town areas: Clear separation between the elevated citadel (central, often administrative and ceremonial area) and the lower residential and commercial areas.
  • Streets laid out in a grid pattern: Streets are organized in a systematic grid, indicating advanced urban planning.
Residential Structures:
  • Variety of housing: Includes both large, well-planned houses and smaller, simpler dwellings.
  • Construction materials: Houses built using mud bricks and stones.
Public Buildings and Structures:
  • Granaries: Storage buildings for grain, indicating organized agriculture.
  • Workshops: Places for crafting and manufacturing goods.
  • Possibly administrative buildings: Structures that may have been used for governance and administration.
  • Fortifications and defensive walls: Built to provide protection from external threats.

Economic Activities and Artifacts

Agriculture and Animal Husbandry:
  • Cultivation of Crops: Evidence shows the growth of wheat, barley, and millet.
  • Domestication of Animals: Remains indicate the domestication of cattle, sheep, goats, and horses.

Harappa - Bronze Age Civilization in South Asia

Craftsmanship and Industry:
  • Pottery Production: Involvement in making pottery.
  • Bead-making: Creation of beads.
  • Metallurgy: Working with metals, evident from artifacts like copper tools.
  • Other Artifacts: Discovery of seals and terracotta figurines.
Trade and Commerce:
  • Interaction with Other Regions: Engaged in trade with other Harappan sites and distant regions.
  • Trade Goods: Evidence of trading lapis lazuli, carnelian, and other semi-precious stones.

Cultural and Social Aspects

Burial Practices:

Five individuals buried together inside the same pit. A... | Download  Scientific Diagram

  • Distinct burial customs provide insights into the social structure and beliefs of the community.
  • Excavation of graves often includes pottery and personal items, indicating the significance of these objects in burial rituals.
Religion and Symbolism:
  • Artifacts such as terracotta figurines and seals suggest the presence of religious practices.
  • The potential presence of fire altars hints at ritualistic activities.
Social Organization:
  • Analysis of house sizes and grave goods helps understand the societal hierarchy.
  • The roles of craftsmen, traders, and farmers indicate a diverse and organized community.

Conclusion on Surkotada

Location and Discovery:

  • Surkotada is an archaeological site of the Indus Valley Civilization.
  • It is located in the present-day Kutch district of Gujarat, India.


  • Strategic Position: Surkotada was located on a significant trade route, facilitating the exchange of goods and ideas.
  • Cultural Insights: The site provides important insights into the urban planning, architecture, and social structure of the Indus Valley people.

Unique Features:

  • Fortified Settlement: Surkotada had a distinctive fortification, indicating a need for defense and security.
  • Burials: The burial practices observed at Surkotada show diverse methods and grave goods, reflecting the complexity of its society.
  • Artifacts: Numerous pottery pieces, tools, and other artifacts have been found, showcasing the craftsmanship and daily life of its inhabitants.


  • The site is dated back to circa 2100-1700 BCE, fitting within the later phase of the Indus Valley Civilization.

Agriculture and Economy:

  • Evidence of agricultural practices and the remains of crops like barley and wheat suggest a well-developed agrarian economy.
  • The presence of animal bones indicates the significance of animal husbandry.


  • The decline of Surkotada, like other Indus Valley sites, is attributed to climatic changes, river shifts, and possible overuse of resources.

Overall Contribution:

  • Surkotada contributes valuable knowledge about the regional variations within the Indus Valley Civilization and enhances our understanding of its extent and diversi


Surkotada is renowned for several reasons: * Late Harappan Settlement: Unlike other major Harappan sites, Surkotada flourished during the later stages of the Indus Valley Civilization (2300 BCE – 1700 BCE). * Fortified Settlement: Excavations revealed a well-defined fortified citadel, suggesting a strategic purpose and a society with a focus on defense. * Horse Bones: The discovery of horse bones dating back to 2000 BCE at Surkotada is a significant find, as horses were not previously associated with the Indus Valley Civilization.

There isn’t a major perennial river flowing directly next to Surkotada today. However, the region likely had access to an ancient course of the now-seasonal Saraswati or Ghaggar-Hakra River system.

The credit for discovering Surkotada goes to Shri Jagat Pati Joshi of the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) during excavations conducted between 1964 and 1968.

Yes, Surkotada is considered a Harappan site. While it flourished during the later stages of the Indus Valley Civilization, it exhibits characteristic Harappan features like town planning, pottery styles, and evidence of trade networks.


1. What is Surkotada?

a) A type of Indian dessert
b) An ancient archaeological site
c) A traditional dance form
d) A famous mountain peak

Solution: b) An ancient archaeological site

2. Where is Surkotada located?

a) Egypt
b) Greece
c) India
d) China

Solution: c) India

3. What civilization is associated with Surkotada?

a) Mesopotamian
b) Egyptian
c) Harappan
d) Mayan

Solution: c) Harappan

4. Which Indian state is Surkotada located in?

a) Rajasthan
b) Punjab
c) Gujarat
d) Maharashtra

Solution: c) Gujarat

5. Which river is near the Surkotada site?

a) Ganges
b) Yamuna
c) Indus
d) Narmada

Solution: c) Indus

6. What kind of site is Surkotada?

a) Religious
b) Agricultural
c) Residential
d) Industrial

Solution: c) Residential

7. Surkotada is known for the discovery of:

a) Gold artifacts
b) Ancient manuscripts
c) Seals with animal motifs
d) Stone tools

Solution: c) Seals with animal motifs

8. Which animal’s remains were found abundantly at Surkotada?

a) Elephant
b) Cow
c) Horse
d) Camel

Solution: d) Camel

9. What was the primary occupation of the inhabitants of Surkotada?

a) Farming
b) Fishing
c) Trading
d) Herding

Solution: d) Herding

10. Which period does Surkotada date back to?

a) Stone Age
b) Bronze Age
c) Iron Age
d) Medieval Period

Solution: b) Bronze Age

11. Surkotada is believed to have been abandoned due to:

a) Natural disaster
b) Climate change
c) War
d) Economic decline

Solution: b) Climate change

12. What was the main crop grown by the inhabitants of Surkotada?

a) Wheat
b) Rice
c) Barley
d) Millet

Solution: c) Barley

13. Which direction is Surkotada from the city of Bhuj?

a) North
b) East
c) South
d) West

Solution: c) South

14. What is the significance of Surkotada in understanding Harappan civilization?

a) It provides evidence of maritime trade
b) It sheds light on the Harappan script
c) It offers insights into Harappan urban planning
d) It reveals the extent of Harappan pastoralism

Solution: d) It reveals the extent of Harappan pastoralism

15. Surkotada is characterized by:

a) Circular dwellings
b) Pyramid structures
c) Underground tunnels
d) High-rise buildings

Solution: a) Circular dwellings

16. Which of the following materials was not found in abundance at Surkotada?

a) Pottery
b) Metal artifacts
c) Ivory
d) Glass

Solution: d) Glass

17. Surkotada is located in which region of Gujarat?

a) Kutch
b) Saurashtra
c) North Gujarat
d) South Gujarat

Solution: a) Kutch

18. Surkotada was excavated by which archaeologist?

a) Mortimer Wheeler
b) B.B. Lal
c) R.S. Bisht
d) J.P. Joshi

Solution: d) J.P. Joshi

19. What is the approximate age of Surkotada?

a) 5,000 years
b) 3,000 years
c) 7,000 years
d) 10,000 years

Solution: c) 7,000 years

20. What is the name of the nearby archaeological site related to Surkotada?

a) Lothal
b) Dholavira
c) Mohenjo-Daro
d) Harappa

Solution: b) Dholavira

Scroll to Top