Plant Tissue

plant tissue

Table of Contents

Introduction to Plant Tissue

What is Plant Tissue?

Plant Tissue

Plant tissue is a group of similar cells that work together to perform a specific function. Just like how different organs in our bodies have different jobs, different plant tissues have different jobs to keep the plant alive and healthy.

There are two main types of plant tissues:

  • Meristematic tissue: These are like the building blocks of the plant. They are constantly dividing and growing, adding new cells to the plant.
  • Permanent tissue: These are mature tissues that have stopped dividing and have specialized for a specific function.

Why is Studying Plant Tissue Important?

Understanding plant tissue is important for several reasons:

  • It helps us understand how plants grow and develop: By studying different tissues, we can learn how they work together to make the plant function as a whole.
  • It helps us improve agricultural practices: Knowing the needs of different tissues can help farmers grow healthier and more productive crops.
  • It helps us develop new plant varieties: By understanding how tissues work, scientists can potentially develop new varieties of plants with desirable traits like disease resistance or improved yields

Types of Plant Tissue

Meristematic Tissue

Image of Meristematic tissue in plant

Meristematic tissue is the building block of plants. It consists of undifferentiated cells that actively divide and grow, giving rise to all other specialized tissues in the plant.


  • Undifferentiated cells: These cells are not specialized and have the potential to become any other type of cell in the plant.
  • Thin cell walls: This allows for easier cell division and growth.
  • Dense cytoplasm: Contains a high concentration of organelles needed for cell division and growth.
  • High metabolic activity: These cells require a lot of energy for the constant division and growth.

Types of Meristematic Tissue

There are three main types of meristematic tissue, distinguished by their location in the plant:

  • Apical Meristem: Located at the tips of shoots (stems) and roots, responsible for increasing the length of the plant.
      • Example: The tip of a growing seedling.
Image of Apical meristem in plant
  • Lateral Meristem: Located on the sides of stems and roots, responsible for increasing the thickness of the plant.
      • Example: The cambium layer found beneath the bark in trees.
Image of Lateral meristem in plant
  • Intercalary Meristem: Located at intercalary regions (between nodes) in stems and at the base of leaves in some plants, responsible for elongating specific parts of the plant.
      • Example: The base of some grass blades.
Image of Intercalary meristem in plant
  • Permanent Tissue in Plants

Permanent tissues are like the building blocks of a plant, providing structure, support, and carrying out essential functions. Unlike other plant tissues, they lack the ability to divide and grow further.


  • Definition: Permanent tissues are mature tissues made up of specialized cells that have reached their final form and lost the ability to divide.
  • Characteristics:
    • Specialized cells: Each type of permanent tissue has cells specifically designed for a particular function.
    • No cell division: Once mature, these cells cannot divide further.
    • Variety of functions: They perform various functions crucial for plant growth and survival.
Permanent Tissues | Class 9 Biology - GeeksforGeeks

Types of Permanent Tissue

There are two main types of permanent tissues in plants:

Simple Permanent Tissues:

  • Composed of similar cells with a single type of structure and function.
  • Three main types:


  • Function: Packing, storage, photosynthesis (if containing chloroplasts).
  • Location: Found throughout the plant, including the pith, cortex, and mesophyll of leaves.
Image of Parenchyma tissue plant


  • Function: Provides support and flexibility to growing plant parts.
  • Location: Found in stems, leaves, and flower stalks.
Image of Collenchyma tissue plant


  • Function: Provides rigidity and support.
  • Location: Found in nutshells, seeds, and woody tissues.
Image of Sclerenchyma tissue plant

Complex Permanent Tissues:

Composed of multiple cell types working together to perform a specific function.

Two main types:


  • Function: Transports water and minerals from roots to leaves.
  • Location: Found in vascular bundles throughout the plant.
Image of Xylem tissue plant


  • Function: Transports food (sugars) produced in leaves to other parts of the plant.
  • Location: Found in vascular bundles throughout the plant.

Image of Phloem tissue plant

Plant Tissues: Structure and Function

Plants, like us, are made up of different building blocks called tissues. Each tissue type has a specific structure and function, allowing plants to thrive. Here’s a breakdown of three main plant tissues:

A. Epidermal Tissue:

  • Structure and Location: The outermost layer of the plant, covering leaves, stems, roots, flowers, and fruits. It’s usually made of a single layer of tightly packed cells.
Figure ..: General representation of a dicot epidermis. The epidermal... | Download Scientific Diagram
  • Functions:
    • Protection: Acts as a barrier against water loss, diseases, and harsh weather conditions.
    • Water Regulation: Controls water loss through tiny pores called stomata.
    • Gas Exchange: Allows for the exchange of gases like carbon dioxide and oxygen through stomata.

B. Ground Tissue:

  • Structure and Location: Makes up the bulk of the plant, found inside leaves, stems, and roots. It consists of various types of cells with different shapes and functions.
Angiosperm - Ground Tissue, Photosynthesis, Vascular System | Britannica
  • Functions:
    • Photosynthesis: Certain cells contain chloroplasts, which capture sunlight to convert water and carbon dioxide into sugar (food) for the plant.
    • Storage: Stores food (sugars and starches), water, and waste products in specific cells.
    • Support: Provides structural support to the plant through thick-walled cells.

C. Vascular Tissue:

  • Structure and Location: A complex network of specialized tubes found throughout the plant, connecting roots, stems, and leaves. It consists of two main types of tissues: xylem and phloem.

Vascular Tissue (Plant): Definition, Function, Types | Biology Dictionary

  • Functions:
    • Transport of Water: Xylem transports water and dissolved minerals from the roots to the leaves.
    • Transport of Sugars: Phloem transports sugars produced in the leaves to other parts of the plant for energy and growth.

Development and Differentiation of Plant Tissue

Plants, unlike animals, have a unique way of growing and developing. This involves two key processes: cell division and differentiation.

A. Cell division and differentiation:

Process of cell division:

  • Imagine a plant cell like a tiny builder. It gathers materials and divides into two identical copies, just like making copies of a blueprint.
In what two ways is a mitotic division in an animal cell different from the mitotic division in a plant cell?
  • This process, called mitosis, happens in special regions of the plant called meristems. These meristems are like the building blocks of the plant, continuously dividing and forming new cells.

2. Factors influencing cell differentiation:

  • Once new cells are created, they begin to differentiate. This means they specialize into different types of cells with different functions.

Imagine the builder from before learning different skills. Some cells might become like bricklayers, forming the plant’s structure, while others become like plumbers, transporting water and nutrients.

The characteristic features of cellular dedifferentiation. Somatic... |  Download Scientific Diagram
  • Several factors influence how a cell differentiates, including:
    • Genes: The cell’s DNA blueprint instructs it on which proteins to build, influencing its form and function.
    • Signaling molecules: These chemical messengers, like plant hormones, tell cells what to become based on their location and the plant’s needs.

B. Tissue differentiation:

1. Formation of different tissue types:

  • As cells differentiate, they group together based on their similarities, forming tissues. These tissues work together to perform specific functions.
  • Imagine the builders working in teams. A group might form the xylem, like pipes transporting water, while another forms the phloem, like a delivery system carrying food throughout the plant.

Diagram showing xylem and phloem in plant 7507633 Vector Art at Vecteezy

  • There are three main types of plant tissues:
    • Dermal tissue: Covers and protects the plant, like the skin on our bodies.
Tissue System: Dermal, Vascular, Ground with Videos and Examples
    • Vascular tissue: Transports water, nutrients, and food throughout the plant.
    • Ground tissue: Provides support, storage, and photosynthesis.

2. Factors influencing tissue differentiation:

  • Similar to cell differentiation, various factors influence tissue formation, including:
    • Cell-to-cell communication: Cells talk to each other through chemical signals, coordinating their development into specific tissues.
    • Location: Where a cell is located in the plant body influences its development path.


Plant tissues are the building blocks of plant structure and function, enabling plants to grow, reproduce, and adapt to their environment. From meristematic tissues that drive growth to specialized tissues that facilitate nutrient transport and protection, each type of tissue contributes to the overall health and vitality of the plant.


A tissue is a group of cells that work together to perform a specific function in an organism. In plants, tissues are organized into various types, each with distinct roles in growth, development, and physiological processes. Plant tissues include meristematic tissue, which drives growth, permanent tissue, responsible for structural support and nutrient transport, and epidermal tissue, serving as a protective barrier.

A “plant tissue PDF” likely refers to a document or file format containing information about plant tissues. This document may cover topics such as the types of plant tissues, their functions, structures, and importance in plant biology. Plant tissue PDFs can be educational resources, research articles, or textbooks aimed at providing comprehensive knowledge about plant anatomy and physiology.

The tissue cell of a plant refers to the individual cell that makes up plant tissues. Plant cells have unique structures, including a cell wall composed of cellulose, a large central vacuole for storage and turgor pressure, chloroplasts for photosynthesis (in green tissues), and various organelles for metabolic functions. Plant tissue cells work together in coordination to support plant growth, perform photosynthesis, transport nutrients, and provide structural integrity.

All of the mentioned terms—meristematic tissue, permanent tissue, and epidermal tissue—are examples of plant tissues. Each type of plant tissue serves specific functions essential for the growth, development, and survival of the plant. Meristematic tissue is responsible for growth and cell division, permanent tissue provides structural support and nutrient transport, while epidermal tissue forms a protective outer layer against environmental stresses and pathogens.


  1. Which of the following is not a primary color?

    • A) Red
    • B) Green
    • C) Yellow
    • D) Black

    Answer: D) Black

  2. What is the chemical symbol for gold?

    • A) Au
    • B) Ag
    • C) Fe
    • D) Hg

    Answer: A) Au

  3. Which planet is known as the “Red Planet”?

    • A) Venus
    • B) Jupiter
    • C) Mars
    • D) Saturn

    Answer: C) Mars

  4. What is the powerhouse of the cell?

    • A) Nucleus
    • B) Mitochondria
    • C) Golgi apparatus
    • D) Endoplasmic reticulum

    Answer: B) Mitochondria

  5. What is the chemical symbol for water?

    • A) O2
    • B) H2O
    • C) CO2
    • D) H2SO4

    Answer: B) H2O

  6. Which gas do plants use for photosynthesis?

    • A) Nitrogen
    • B) Carbon dioxide
    • C) Oxygen
    • D) Hydrogen

    Answer: B) Carbon dioxide

  7. Which planet is the largest in the solar system?

    • A) Earth
    • B) Mars
    • C) Jupiter
    • D) Saturn

    Answer: C) Jupiter

  8. What is the capital of France?

    • A) London
    • B) Berlin
    • C) Paris
    • D) Rome

    Answer: C) Paris

  9. Which of the following is a mammal?

    • A) Crocodile
    • B) Eagle
    • C) Dolphin
    • D) Turtle

    Answer: C) Dolphin

  10. What is the chemical symbol for iron?

    • A) Ir
    • B) Fe
    • C) In
    • D) Au

    Answer: B) Fe

  11. Which gas makes up the majority of Earth’s atmosphere?

    • A) Oxygen
    • B) Nitrogen
    • C) Carbon dioxide
    • D) Hydrogen

    Answer: B) Nitrogen

  12. Who wrote “Romeo and Juliet”?

    • A) William Shakespeare
    • B) Charles Dickens
    • C) Jane Austen
    • D) Mark Twain

    Answer: A) William Shakespeare

  13. What is the largest organ in the human body?

    • A) Liver
    • B) Brain
    • C) Skin
    • D) Heart

    Answer: C) Skin

  14. Which country is known as the Land of the Rising Sun?

    • A) China
    • B) Japan
    • C) India
    • D) Thailand

    Answer: B) Japan

  15. What is the chemical symbol for silver?

    • A) Ag
    • B) Si
    • C) Sr
    • D) Sn

    Answer: A) Ag

  16. Which of the following is not a primary color of light?

    • A) Red
    • B) Green
    • C) Blue
    • D) Yellow

    Answer: D) Yellow

  17. Who discovered penicillin?

    • A) Alexander Fleming
    • B) Louis Pasteur
    • C) Marie Curie
    • D) Isaac Newton

    Answer: A) Alexander Fleming

  18. Which planet is known as the “Morning Star” and “Evening Star”?

    • A) Venus
    • B) Mercury
    • C) Mars
    • D) Neptune

    Answer: A) Venus

  19. What is the largest mammal in the world?

    • A) Elephant
    • B) Giraffe
    • C) Blue whale
    • D) Hippopotamus

    Answer: C) Blue whale

  20. Which of the following is not a type of cloud?

    • A) Cirrus
    • B) Cumulus
    • C) Stratus
    • D) Equinox

    Answer: D) Equinox

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