Mohenjo-daro (Mound of Dead)

Mohenjo-Daro, whose name literally translates to “Mound of the Dead” in Sindhi, is one of the most important archaeological sites associated with the Harappan Civilization, also known as the Indus Valley Civilization.

Mohenjodaro (Mound of Dead)

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Introduction of Mohenjo-Daro (Mound of Dead)

  • It may include information about Mohenjo-Daro being one of the largest cities of the ancient Indus Valley Civilization and its status as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Geographic Location:

  • Here, we discuss the geographic location of Mohenjo-Daro, situating it within the broader context of the ancient Indus Valley Civilization.
  • Details about its location in present-day Pakistan, near the Indus River, and its proximity to other major ancient sites like Harappa may be included.

Historical Context:

  • This part provides historical context for Mohenjo-Daro, discussing its timeframe and the broader historical and cultural context of the Indus Valley Civilization.
  • It may mention the timeframe of Mohenjo-Daro’s existence, which flourished around 2500 BCE to 1900 BCE, and its significance as one of the earliest urban centers in the world.

Urban Planning and Layout

Mohenjo-daro, also known as “Mound of the Dead,” stands as a testament to the remarkable urban planning skills of the Harappan Civilization. Flourishing from around 3300 BCE to 1300 BCE, this city boasted a well-organized layout, impressive public structures, and a sophisticated drainage system. Let’s delve into the key aspects of Mohenjo-daro’s urban planning and layout:

City Structure and Organization

  • Hierarchical Organization: Mohenjo-daro appears to have been divided into different sectors, possibly reflecting a hierarchical social structure. A raised citadel area might have housed administrative or religious buildings, while other areas contained residential neighborhoods.
  • Fortified Area: The presence of a fortified area suggests a concern for security, perhaps to protect the city from external threats or control trade.
  • Public and Private Spaces: The city seems to have had a clear distinction between public spaces like the Great Bath and granary, and private areas like residential neighborhoods.

Street Grid System

  • Grid Layout:One of the most remarkable features of Mohenjo-daro is its grid-planned street system. Wide main streets intersected by narrower lanes divided the city into rectangular blocks.
  • Planned Infrastructure: This grid system facilitated efficient movement within the city and suggests a high level of planning and organization. The width of the streets might have also helped with ventilation and natural light.

How did architectural features of Mohenjo Daro indicate planning? What are  some suitable examples? - Quora

  • Drainage System: Along with the street network, a sophisticated covered drainage system ran beneath the city, effectively channeling wastewater away from houses. This advanced drainage system highlights the public health considerations of the Harappans.

Great Bath Complex

  • Public Bathing Facility:The Great Bath is one of the most recognizable structures in Mohenjo-daro. It’s a large public bath complex with a central pool, smaller plunge pools, and changing rooms.
Image of Mohenjodaro Great Bath
  • Ritual Significance: The exact function of the Great Bath is still debated, but it might have served both hygienic and ritualistic purposes.
  • Engineering Marvel: The construction of the Great Bath required considerable engineering skill, with features like waterproofing and a sloping floor demonstrating their advanced techniques.

Residential and Commercial Areas

  • Residential Quarters: Excavations have revealed multi-storied houses with features like courtyards, brick wells, and even toilets. These features suggest a comfortable and well-developed urban lifestyle for the residents.
  • Commercial Activity: While specific marketplaces haven’t been definitively identified, evidence of craft production and the presence of seals (potentially used for marking ownership) suggest commercial activity within the city.

Architecture and Infrastructure

Mohenjo-daro, meaning “Mound of the Dead” in Sindhi, stands as a testament to the remarkable achievements of the Harappan Civilization. This bustling city, flourishing from around 3300 BCE to 1300 BCE, boasted impressive architecture and a well-developed infrastructure that supported its flourishing urban life. Let’s explore some key aspects of Mohenjo-daro’s built environment:

Residential Buildings

  • Multi-Storied Structures: Houses in Mohenjo-daro were multi-storied, constructed using baked bricks. Evidence suggests these dwellings were divided into rooms, likely catering to extended families.
Image of Mohenjodaro houses
  • Courtyards: Many houses had central courtyards, providing natural light and ventilation. These courtyards might have also been used for work activities or social gatherings.
  • Drainage System Integration: Houses often incorporated sophisticated drainage systems, channeling wastewater into street drains and eventually into larger sewers.
  • Material Comfort: Findings of bathroom facilities within some houses suggest a concern for hygiene and sanitation.

Public Buildings

  • Great Bath: One of the most remarkable structures in Mohenjo-daro is the Great Bath. This large public bath complex featured a central pool, bathing areas, and changing rooms.
Image of Mohenjodaro Great Bath
  • Granary: A massive granary structure points towards efficient food storage and management. This suggests a focus on agriculture and surplus production.
  • Assembly Halls: The presence of large halls suggests spaces for public gatherings or administrative activities.

Drainage System

  • Urban Planning Integration: Mohenjo-daro’s drainage system was meticulously planned and integrated into the city’s layout.
  • Covered Drains: Streets had covered drains built with fired or sun-dried bricks to efficiently channel wastewater.
  • Waste Disposal System: The drainage system connected to larger sewer channels that carried wastewater out of the city.

Wells and Water Management

  • Essential Water Source: Wells were essential for providing freshwater for the city’s inhabitants.
  • Stepwells: Some wells were elaborately constructed stepwells, allowing people to descend to the water table easily.
  • Water Management Skills: The presence of numerous wells suggests efficient water management practices to sustain a large urban population.


Mohenjo-daro, the “Mound of the Dead,” stands as a testament to the ingenuity and organizational skills of the Harappan Civilization. This bustling metropolis that thrived from 3300 BCE to 1300 BCE offers a captivating glimpse into an ancient world marked by urban planning, agricultural prowess, and a thriving economy.

Enduring Legacy

Mohenjo-daro’s legacy extends far beyond its physical remains. It serves as a reminder of the:

  • Power of human innovation: The well-planned city with its advanced drainage system, standardized bricks, and impressive public structures showcases the remarkable planning and engineering capabilities of the Harappans.
  • Importance of trade and commerce: Mohenjo-daro’s extensive trade network highlights the significance of global interconnectedness and exchange of ideas and goods.
  • Rich cultural life: The Indus Script, skilled crafts like pottery and seals, and evidence of a diverse urban population hint at a rich cultural life that flourished in Mohenjo-daro.

Economy and Trade

Mohenjo-daro, the “Mound of the Dead,” wasn’t just a well-planned city with impressive structures. It was also a bustling center of economic activity during the Harappan Civilization (3300 BCE – 1300 BCE). Let’s explore the two main pillars of Mohenjo-daro’s economy:

Agricultural Practices

  • Subsistence Farming: The foundation of Mohenjo-daro’s economy was subsistence agriculture. Farmers cultivated crops like wheat, barley, pulses, and cotton using a network of canals built to channel water from the Indus River and its tributaries.
Image of Indus Valley Civilization irrigation system
  • Surplus Production: Evidence of granaries found at Mohenjo-daro suggests efficient agricultural practices that yielded surplus crops. This surplus could be used for:
    • Trade with other settlements
    • Supporting the urban population of Mohenjo-daro
    • Storing food for times of scarcity
  • Animal Husbandry: People in Mohenjo-daro also raised animals like cows, buffalo, sheep, goats, and pigs, providing a source of:
    • Meat
    • Dairy products
    • Hides for tools and clothing

Craftsmanship and Industries

  • Skilled Artisans: Mohenjo-daro was home to skilled artisans who produced a wide variety of crafts:
  • Pottery:They produced remarkable pottery ranging from utilitarian vessels to intricately decorated pieces.
Image of Indus Valley Civilization pottery
  • Seals:Carved steatite (soapstone) seals depicting animals, geometric patterns, and the undeciphered Indus Script inscriptions were used for administrative purposes or identification.
A selection of unicorn stamp seals recovered from Mohenjo-daro. Like... |  Download Scientific Diagram


Indus Valley Civilization soapstone seal

    • Metalwork: Evidence of bronze and copper tools and ornaments suggests metalworking skills.
    • Textiles: Spindle whorls and fragmentary cloth remains indicate textile production, likely using cotton grown locally.
  • Specialized Production: The presence of specialized workshops suggests a clear division of labor and production for a wider market, possibly including other Harappan cities and trade with regions beyond the Indus Valley.

Trade and Exchange

  • Trade Network: Mohenjo-daro’s well-developed crafts industry fueled a vast trade network.
  • Traded Goods: They likely traded agricultural products (surplus crops, cotton) and finished crafts (pottery, beads, textiles) for raw materials like turquoise and shells not available locally.
  • Evidence of Trade: The presence of materials like turquoise from Afghanistan and shells from the Arabian Sea in Mohenjo-daro points towards their long-distance trade connections.


Mohenjo-daro, which translates to “Mound of the Dead” in Sindhi, is famous for being:

  • A major urban center of the Harappan Civilization (3300 BCE – 1300 BCE).
  • One of the largest settlements of its time, known for its well-planned layout and impressive structures.
  • A place showcasing advanced features for its time, like a sophisticated drainage system, standardized bricks in construction, and a large public bath complex.
  • A center of economic activity with evidence of skilled craftspeople, agricultural practices, and a vast trade network.
  • A source of ongoing archaeological discoveries, including the Indus Script, a writing system yet to be deciphered.

Mohenjo-daro is still referred to by its original name today. It’s also sometimes called the “Mound of the Dead” due to its literal translation.

Well, the concept of “hit or flop” doesn’t quite apply to ancient civilizations! Mohenjo-daro thrived for centuries as a major urban center. While the reasons for its decline remain debated by archaeologists, the cultural and technological advancements of the Harappan Civilization at Mohenjo-daro leave a lasting impression.

Mohenjo-daro was a bustling city where people lived, worked, and traded for centuries. Here are some of the things that happened there:

  • Urban planning: The city was laid out in a grid pattern with well-defined streets and drainage systems.
  • Construction: They built impressive structures like the Great Bath, a granary, and multi-storied houses.
  • Crafts and Industries: Skilled artisans produced pottery, seals, metalwork, and textiles.
  • Agriculture: People cultivated crops and raised animals to support the urban population.
  • Trade: Mohenjo-daro was a center of trade, with a network connecting them to other regions.


1. What does the name “Mohenjo-Daro” mean?

a) City of Gold
b) Mound of Dead
c) City of Love
d) City of Peace

  • Solution: b) Mound of Dead

2. Mohenjo-Daro was an ancient city located in which modern-day country?

a) India
b) Pakistan
c) Afghanistan
d) Bangladesh

  • Solution: b) Pakistan

3. Mohenjo-Daro was part of which ancient civilization?

a) Sumerians
b) Egyptians
c) Harappan
d) Mesopotamians

  • Solution: c) Harappan

4. What was the primary material used for construction in Mohenjo-Daro?

a) Wood
b) Mud bricks
c) Stone
d) Bronze

  • Solution: b) Mud bricks

5. Which river was Mohenjo-Daro situated beside?

a) Nile River
b) Tigris River
c) Indus River
d) Ganges River

  • Solution: c) Indus River

6. Mohenjo-Daro was discovered in which century?

a) 18th century
b) 19th century
c) 20th century
d) 21st century

  • Solution: b) 19th century

7. What was the estimated population of Mohenjo-Daro at its peak?

a) Few hundred
b) Few thousand
c) Few tens of thousands
d) Few hundred thousand

  • Solution: c) Few tens of thousands

8. Which aspect of Mohenjo-Daro’s urban planning is notable?

a) Grid-like street layout
b) Circular city walls
c) Lack of drainage system
d) Randomly arranged buildings

  • Solution: a) Grid-like street layout

9. The Great Bath is a prominent structure found in Mohenjo-Daro. What was its likely purpose?

a) Temple
b) Market
c) Reservoir
d) Assembly hall

  • Solution: c) Reservoir

10. What evidence suggests that Mohenjo-Daro had a sophisticated sewage and drainage system?

a) Presence of underground tunnels
b) Lack of waste disposal areas
c) Well-preserved toilets and bathrooms
d) Absence of water reservoirs

  • Solution: c) Well-preserved toilets and bathrooms

11. Mohenjo-Daro was part of the _________ civilization, one of the world’s earliest urban civilizations.

a) Egyptian
b) Mesopotamian
c) Harappan
d) Minoan

  • Solution: c) Harappan

12. What do archaeologists believe led to the decline of Mohenjo-Daro?

a) Natural disasters
b) Invasion
c) Climate change
d) Economic collapse

  • Solution: c) Climate change

13. Mohenjo-Daro had a complex system of __________, indicating a high level of social organization.

a) Taxation
b) Writing
c) Currency
d) Religion

  • Solution: b) Writing

14. What type of script was used in Mohenjo-Daro’s writing system?

a) Cuneiform
b) Hieroglyphics
c) Pictographs
d) Alphabetical

  • Solution: c) Pictographs

15. Mohenjo-Daro had an advanced __________ system, with public wells providing access to clean water.

a) Irrigation
b) Sanitation
c) Transportation
d) Communication

  • Solution: b) Sanitation

16. The ruins of Mohenjo-Daro were rediscovered in the 20th century by ____________.

a) British archaeologists
b) French explorers
c) Indian historians
d) Pakistani archaeologists

  • Solution: d) Pakistani archaeologists

17. Which Harappan city is believed to have been the administrative center of the civilization?

a) Harappa
b) Mohenjo-Daro
c) Lothal
d) Kalibangan

  • Solution: b) Mohenjo-Daro

18. Mohenjo-Daro’s citizens likely engaged in trade with other civilizations, evidenced by the discovery of ____________.

a) Artifacts made of jade
b) Coins made of gold
c) Seals made of bronze
d) Pottery made of clay

  • Solution: c) Seals made of bronze

19. Mohenjo-Daro’s layout suggests a well-planned city with distinct _____________.

a) Residential and commercial areas
b) Agricultural and industrial zones
c) Military and religious districts
d) Upper and lower classes

  • Solution: a) Residential and commercial areas

20. The civilization of Mohenjo-Daro is often associated with which river valley?

a) Nile River Valley
b) Tigris River Valley
c) Euphrates River Valley
d) Indus River Valley

  • Solution: d) Indus River Valley
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